7.1 SIMPLE PAST
The simple past describes actions which are completed, for example actions which happened yesterday, last week or longer time ago. So it is the tense for "experienced and/or narrated past".
Formed with the suffix –di it is determined by the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY, so it can be
-dı, -di, -du or -dü.
bilmek = to known (=> verb stem bil-)
bildim = I knew
bildin = you knew
bildi = he/she/it knew
bildik = we knew
bildiniz = you (plural or polite form) knew
bildiler = they knew
As you may have noticed in 1st person plural the personal pronoun suffix now ends with a "k" instead of "z".
Of course also in this tense the famous "Hard Consonantes" use their influence. But this time they don’t get softened. Do you remember the hint in lesson 3.2? Some suffixes get hardened when a word ends with one of the hard consonantes. Therefore the simple past suffix has to pass a two fisted training in order to being able standing these consonantes and is changed to -ti:
yaptım = I did
yaptın = you did
yaptı = he/she/it did
yaptık = we did
yaptınız = you (plural or polite form) did
yaptılar = they did
Also here it might be more clear that it’s more easy to speak out yaptım instead of "yapdım". Otherwise it would just sound too... hmmm... just too soft!
çalışmak = to work (=> verb stem çalış-)
çalıştım = I worked
çalıştın = you worked
çalıştı = he/she/it worked
çalıştık = we worked
çalıştınız = you (plural or polite forem) worked
çalıştılar = they worked
At the same time the suffix -di is also to past form of "to be":
büyüktü = he/she/it was big
When ending on a vowel insert a y:
hastaydı = he/she/it was ill
Furthermore you probably had or had not something in the past:
Arabam vardı. = I had a car.
Arabam yoktu. = I didn't have a car.
7.2 NEGATION OF SIMPLE PAST
Short and painless: Negation of simple past is made by the suffix -ma/-me which is put in front of the past tense suffix:
yapmadım = I didn't do
yapmadın = you didn't do
yapmadı = he/she/it didn't do
yapmadık = we didn't do
yapmadınız = you (plural or polite form) didn't do
yapmadılar = they didn't do
This time the –di suffix doesn’t have to be hardened as it is "protected" by the negation particle.
düşünmedim = I didn't think
düşünmedin = you didn't think
düşünmedi = he/she/it didn't think
düşünmedik = we didn't think
düşünmediniz = you (plural or polite form) didn't think
düşünmediler = they didn't think
Remember: "to be" in Turkish is negated with değil. So then -di as the past suffix of "to be":
büyük değildi = he/she/it wasn't big
7.3 PAST PROGRESSIVE
With this past tense you describe exactly the same as in English: an action which was about to take place but wasn’t completed. So it is the past counterpart to the continuous present (-iyor). You were about to do something as something else happened.
Formed with the suffix -(i)yordu.
As this suffix follows GREAT VOWEL HARMONY it can have following forms: -ıyordu, -iyordu, -uyordu or -üyordu.
biliyordum = I was knowing
biliyordun = you were knowing
biliyordu = he/she/it was knowing
biliyorduk = we were knowing
biliyordunuz = you (plural or polite form) were knowing
biliyordular = they were knowing
yapıyordum = I was doing
yapıyordun = you were doing
yapıyordu = he/she/it was doing
yapıyorduk = we were doing
yapıyordunuz = you (plural or polite form) were doing
yapıyordular = they were doing
Lale'yi düşünüyordum. Telefon çaldı. = I was thinking of Lale as the phone rang.
A certain action was taking place (thinking of Lale) as another action interrupted (the ringing of the phone).
7.4 NEGATION OF PAST PROGRESSIVE
For negation you need to put the letter -m in front of the past suffix:
bilmiyordum = I wasn't knowing
bilmiyordun = you weren't knowing
bilmiyordu = he/she/it wasn't knowing
bilmiyorduk = we weren't knowing
bilmiyordunuz = you (plural or polite form) weren't knowing
bilmiyordular = they weren't knowing
yapmıyordum = I wasn't doing
yapmıyordun = you weren't doing
yapmıyordu = he/she/it wasn't doing
yapmıyorduk = we weren't doing
yapmıyordunuz = you (plural or polite form) weren't doing
yapmıyordular = they weren't doing
büyütmek = to extend, to exaggerrate; çalmak = to ring, but also: to steal; çalışmak = to work; dalmak = to dive; doldurmak = to fill in; kum = the sand; restoran = the restaurant; şemsiye = the sunshade; yazmak = to write; yüzmek = to swim