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Lesson 17

17.1 PARTICIPLES RELATIVE CLAUSES
Participles are used to put a verb in relation to a substantive. The result is for instance a relative clause, sentences which can be translated with "something that" or "somebody who".

17.1.1 Participles with "-dik"

This suffix is determined by the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY and can therefore be:
-dık, -dik, -duk, -dük

After hard consonantes: -tık, -tik, -tuk, -tük

Adding a personal pronouns suffix softens the k in -dik to ğ, except in 3rd person plural.

Examples:
Kaçırdığım tren Ankara'da duracak. = The train I missed will stop in Ankara.
Kaçırdığın tren Ankara'da duracak. = The train you missed... .
Kaçırdığı tren Ankara'da duracak. = The train he/she/it missed... .
Kaçırdığımız tren Ankara'da duracak. = The train we missed... .
Kaçırdığınız tren Ankara'da duracak. = The train you (plural or polite form) we missed... .
Onların kaçırdıkları tren Ankara'da duracak. = The train they missed... .

The suffix doesn't express any tense mode which means that the context clarifies in which tense (present or past) the speaker is talking.
gördüğün kadın can therefore be "the woman you see" or "the woman you saw". It's up to the context to determine the tense.

Negation with -me/ma prior to the participle:
Kaçırmadığım tren Ankara'da duracak. = The train I didn't miss... .
görmediğin kadın = the woman you don't/didn't see

17.1.2 Participle with "-(y)en/-(y)an"

In Turkish there is no direct translation for the relative clause term "that/who". This is solved with the suffix
-(y)en/-(y)an (Little Vowel Harmony).

Example:
kalan yemek = the food that remains
gelen adam = the man who comes

At vowel ending insert a y:
bekleyen kız = the girl who waits

Negation with -me/ma prior to the participle:
kalmayan yemek = the food that doesn't remain
gelmeyen adam = the man who doesn't come

17.1.3 Participle with "-(y)ecek/-(y)acak"

Another participle is
-(y)ecek/-(y)acak (Little Vowel Harmony)
Actually it's identical with the future suffix -ecek/-acak, but in this case it's a participle putting a verb in relation to a substantive, so there is no chance to mistake it.

Examples:
kalacak yemek = the food that will remain
gelecek adam = the man who will come

This vocabulary you know already:
gelecek zaman means "the future", but literally it's: "the time that will come"

Negation with -me/ma prior to the participle:
kalmayacak yemek = the food that won't remain
gelmeyecek adam = the man who won't come

17.2 THE PARTICIPLE "-(Y)İP"

The suffix -(y)ip or -(y)ıp, -(y)up, -(y)üp (GREAT VOWEL HARMONY) helps forming parallel sentences. It means that you can combine at least two actions following directly after another in the same tense form.

Example:
Eve gidiyorum, çay içiyorum. = I'm going home and drink a tea.

Take the first verb, equip it with a -(y)ip-suffix and you got:
Eve gidip çay içiyorum.

The sentence is now more fluently and you save some letters. The -(y)ip-suffix is always the same independent of the person. It's the last verb without -(y)ip-suffix determining the person and tense.
Normally you don't link more then three actions this way.
Dükkana gidip ekmek alıp bana getirirsin. = You go to the shop, buy bread and bring it to me.

At vowel ending insert a y:
Arabaya atlayıp çarşıya gidiyoruz. = We jump into the car and drive to the centre.


Vocabulary:
atlamak = to jump; dükkan = the shop; ekmek = the bread; kaçırmak = to miss; kalmak = to stay; meyva (or meyve) = the fruit; meyva suyu= the fruit juice; portakal = the orange; portakal suyu = the orange juice; tren = the train
 
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