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Lesson 14

14.1 "WITH" AND "WITHOUT"

"with" and "without" are also formed by suffixes which are added to the substantives.

14.1.1 With - The Suffix "-li"
-li follows the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY, so it can be modified to
-lı, -li, -lu and -lü

Examples:
Süt bir kahve lütfen. = A coffee with milk please.
Proper nouns are separated by an apostroph from the suffix:
Mehmet'le futbol maçına gittim. = I have gone with Mehmet to the football match.
If the word ends on a vowel you insert y:
Kediyle oynuyorum. = I’m playing with the cat.

The suffix -li is related to the word ile which means “with” but also “and".
Examples:
Leyla ile Mecnun. = Leyla and Mecnun. - or: Leyla with Mecnun.
Mecnun Leyla ile gezmiş. = Mecnun went with Leyla for a walk.
OR: Mecnun Leyla'yla gezmiş.

14.1.2 Without - The Suffix "-siz"
-siz is also determined by the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY:
-sız, -siz, -suz and -süz

Examples:
Sütsüz bir kahve lütfen.
= A coffee without milk please.
Mehmet'siz futbol maçına gittim.
= I have gone without Mehmet to the football match.

14.2 "LIKE/AS" AND "FOR"

In Turkish "like/as" and "for" are single unchangeable words.

14.2.1 Like/as - "gibi"
Examples:
Ayı gibi bir adam(dır). = He’s a man like a bear. (literal translation: Bear like a man is.)
Cildi ipek gibi hafif(dir). = His/her skin is as soft as silk. (literal translation: Her/his skin silk like soft is.)

14.2.2 For - "için"
Examples :
Futbol maçı için iki bilet lazım.
= I need two tickets for the football match.
Bu Lale için bir hediye(dir).
= This is a present for Lale.

14.3 CLIMAX AND SUPERLATIVE

Also for the climax and superlative forms there are single unchangable words.

14.3.1 Degrees of Adjectives and Comparative
daha
= more, still

Examples:
İstanbul daha yakın(dır). = Istanbul is nearer. (literal translation: Istanbul more near is.)
Bu masa daha küçük(tür). = This table is smaller. (literal translation: This table more small is.)

For comparing daha is combined with the ablative which occures a comparative:
Lale Deniz'den daha büyük(tür). = Lale is taller than Deniz. (literal translation: From Deniz Lale is more tall.)

daha can also be translated with “still”:
İstanbul'a daha 20 kilometre var. = There are still 20 kms until Istanbul.

14.3.2 Superlative with "en"
en
= the most

Examples:
Mehmet en küçük(tür).
or: Mehmet en küçüğü. = Mehmet is the smallest.
İstanbul Türkiye'de en büyük şehir(dir).
= Istanbul is the biggest town in Turkey.


Vocabulary:
alışveriş = the shopping; ayı = the bear; bilet = the ticket; cilt = the skin; daha = more, still; ders çalışmak = to learn; en = most; futbol = football, soccer; futbol maçı = the football match; gibi = like, as; giriş = the entrance; görmek = to see; hediye = the present; ışımak = to shine; için = for; ile = with, and; ipek = the silk; kilometre = kilometre; kolay = easy; maç = the match; sel = the flood; seyretmek = to watch; şehir = city, town; şeker = the sugar; ücret = the fee, charge, toll; yaşlı = old, aged

 
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