13.1 THE PASSIVE
The passive is formed with the suffixes -il- and -in-. Both suffixes follow the GREAT VOWEL HAMONY, therefore they can be modified to:
-ıl-, -il- , -ul- and -ül-
... accordingly with -in-:
-ın-, -in-, -un- and -ün-
-il- is used for all verb stems ending with consonantes, EXCEPT the verb stem is ending with an l (L), then you use -in-.
Examples in infinitive:
yapmak = to make - yapılmak = to be made
kapatmak = to close - kapatılmak = to be closed
vermek = to give - verilmek = to be passed
görmek = to see- görülmek = to be seen
Verb stems ending with l:
bulmak = to find - bulunmak = to be found
almak = to take- alınmak = to be taken
13.1.2 Vowel Ending
If the verb stem ends on a vocal the suffix is shortened to -n-:
yemek = to eat - yenmek = to be eaten
beklemek = to wait - beklenmek = to be expected
13.1.3 Passive in Different Tenses
You can put the passive into different tenses.
Pencere açılıyor. = The window is being opened.
Pencere açılır. = The window is opened.
Pencere açıldı. = The window has been opened.
Pencere açılmış. = The window was openend.
Pencere açılacak. = The window is going to be opened.
Pencere açılsa. = If the window is opened.
Actually you just construct a new verb if you form the passive and this new verb can be handled as you learned in former lessons.
13.2 PASSIVE IN COMBINATION WITH PERSONS
If you want to express that a certain action is taken by a person you have to combine the passive form with tarafından (= from side of):
Bu mektup Mehmet tarafından gönderildi. = The letter has been sent by Mehmet.
Kitap Yaşar Kemal tarafından yazılmış. = The book has been written by Yaşar Kemal.
13.3 NEGATION OF THE PASSIVE
To negate just add -me/-ma (Little Vowel Harmony) to the passive form:
yapılmamak = to be not made
verilmemek = to be not passed
görülmemek = to be not seen
bulunmamak = to be not found
yenmemek = to be not eaten
Pencere açılmıyor. = The window is not being opened.
Pencere açılmaz. = The window cannot be opened.
Pencere açılmadı. = The window hasn’t been opened.
Pencere açılmamış. = The window wasn’t opened.
Pencere açılmacak. = The window is not going to be opened.
Pencere açılmasa. = If the window is not opened.
13.4 PASSIVE = REFLEXIVE
At the same time the passive suffix -in is also the suffix for reflexive forms (himself/herself/itself).
yıkamak = to wash - yıkanmak = to wash himself
bulmak = to find - bulunmak = to find himself, but same as in passive: to be found
görmek = to seen - görünmek = to see himself (also: to be located)
dayamak = to base; demek = to say; göndermek = to send; görmek = to see; kir = the dirt, dity; pis = dirty; pislik = the dirt, lousiness, mess; satmak = to sell; silmek = to erase; temizlemek = to clean; yıkamak = to wash