10.1 THE NEED TO DO SOMETHING
In Turkish there are THREE possibilities to express the need or due to do something.
-meli/-malı is determined by the Little Vowel Harmony.
Also you can put this form of expressing need into the two known past tenses (above samples are in present tense). Notice that an y is inserted:
10.1.2 Negation of "-meli/-malı"
For negation you have to insert -me/-ma (Little Vowel Harmony).
You can use the negation form -memeli/-mamalı also to say something in the sense of "should not".
lazım actually means "necessary" and is an unchangeable word in a combination which expresses the need of doing something. As part of this combination you add the suffix -me/ma (Little Vowel Harmony) and a possessive suffix to the verb. You already know -me/ma as a negation particle but here it fulfills another function.
10.1.4 Negation of "lazım"
The negation is very simple. As lazım is unchangeable you need another word for negating it: değil.
The third option to express need to do something is offered with the verb gerekmek which directly could be translated “must”. Also like in combination with lazım you add -me/-ma and a possessive suffix to the verb.
In this example we used gerekmek in (i)yor-present tense. gerekmek always is put into the 3rd person singular, as it refers to the “doing” itself, not to the person who acts. You can combine also in the other so far known tenses.
FUTURE: Yarın havalimanına gitmem gerekecek. = Tomorrow I’m going to have to go to the airport..
İR-PRESENT: Her gün okula gitmem gerek. = Everyday I have to go to school.
Actually you could also blank out the other tense suffixes as the words dün and yarın already indicate when the actions take place.
10.1.6 Negation of "gerekmek"
For negating gerekmek you need the additional suffix -m(e), in infinitive form: gerekmemek.
10.2 "LET'S..." / "SHALL WE...?" - THE OPTATIVE
If you like to propose a certain action, Turkish offers the optative. It sounds like a additional case but it isn’t. For using the optative you need the suffix -e)yim/-(e)lim. It is only used for each 1st person (singular and plural) and follows the Little Vowel Harmony:
1st person singular:
Hadi, gidelim. = Come on, let’s go.
büro = the office; değil = (be) not; dinlemek = to listen; dün = yesterday; gerekmek = to must; havalimanı (or havaalanı) = the airport; İspanya = Spain; lazım = necessary; liman = the (sea) port; sormak = to ask; tamirhane = the garage (repair shop); tamir etmek = to reopair; yarın = tomorrow
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